Ijen Crater

Mount Ijen advanced is a cluster of strato volcano in East Java, Indonesia. It's within a bigger volcanic crater Ijen, that is regarding 20 kilometers wide. Mount Merapi Strato volcano is that the highest purpose of that advanced. The name of this volcano resembles that of a special volcano, mount Merapi in central Java,also referred to as mount Merapi. The name "Merapi" suggests that "fire" within the Indonesian language.

West of mount Merapi is that the Ijen volcano, that features a 1 km wide turquoise colored acid crater lake. The lake is an effort full sulfur mining operation, within which sulfur laden baskets area unit carried by hand from the crater floor. Several alternative post-caldera cone and craters area unit settled inside the volcanic crater or on its rim. The most important concentration of post-caldera cones forms east / west trending zone across the southern facet of the volcanic crater. The active crater at Ijen Crater has a similar radius of 361 meters, a surface of 0.41 kilometer square. It's 200 meters deep and features a volume of 36 block hectometers. In 2008, soul George Kourounis took a little rubber boat out onto the acid lake to live its acidity. The of the water within the crater was measured to be zero.5 attributable to sulfur acid.

Sulfur Mining
An active vent at the sting of the lake may be a supply of elemental sulfur, and support a mining operation. Escaping volcanic gasses area unit channeled through a network of ceramic pipes, leading to condensation of liquid sulfur. The sulfur, that is crimson in color once liquid, pours slowly from the ends of those pipes and pools on the bottom, turning bright yellow because it cool. The miners break the cooled material into massive items and carry it away in baskets. Miners should carry masses, that vary from 70 kg to 100 kg, up 200 meters to the crater rim so many miles down the mountain. Most miners build this journey doubly on a daily basis. A close by refinery pays the miners by the load of sulfur transported; as of September 2012. The miners typically use insufficient protection whereas operating round the volcano and complain of various metabolism afflictions.